Human Rights in Budapest

SMU students, faculty and staff are visiting Budapest, Hungary, with SMU’s Embrey Human Rights Program Jan. 7-13, 2015. Led by program director Rick Halperin, 12 undergraduate and master’s level students are traveling to the country along with Vicki Hill, SMU’s Assistant Dean for the University Curriculum. In an effort to address past, present and future identity issues stemming from what happened in Hungary before, during and after its Nazi-occupation in World War II, the group will meet with Holocaust survivors, witnesses and rescuers. READ MORE

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Women’s body image tied to what they think men like: study

NY Daily News

Originally posted: Jan. 15, 2015

When told that men desire full-bodied, voluptuous figures, women felt better about their own weight, say researchers at Southern Methodist University in Texas.

“A woman’s body image is strongly linked to her perception of what she thinks men prefer,” says lead author and social psychologist Andrea Meltzer of SMU.

Heterosexual women, says Meltzer, tend to believe that men prefer the dieted-down, ultra-thin bodies that dominate the media.

“Consequently, this study suggests that interventions that alter women’s perception regarding men’s desires for ideal female body sizes may be effective at improving women’s body image,” she says.

This would be an important step for women’s health and well-being because prior research has shown that women with a positive image of their physique tend to eat healthier, exercise more and have a superior overall self-image.

On the flipside, those who are unhappy with their body have less sex, less sexual satisfaction and less marital satisfaction.

“It is possible that women who are led to believe that men prefer women with bodies larger than the models depicted in the media may experience higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of depression,” says Meltzer.

Together with her team, Meltzer conducted three separate studies that led her to this conclusion, working with a total of 448 women.

Spring-boarding on past research that says women who watch TV and read fashion magazines are likely to have a poor body image, they asked participants to look at pictures of plus-sized models wearing a variety of clothing including bathing suits.

Only their bodies were visible to keep participants from being influenced by their facial attractiveness.

Several control groups were included and their tasks included looking at pictures of full-figured women that were not portrayed as being considered attractive to men.

Another control group was shown pictures of very thin women and they were told that these are the kind of women men desire.

In all three studies, women were more positive about their bodies after looking at pictures of voluptuous women who were portrayed to being attractive to men.

Despite the positive results of her studies and their potential to improve women’s health, Meltzer admits it’s not clear how long the resulting positive body image lasts and the media remains a pervasive threat to un-doing them.

The research was published in the journal Social Psychological & Personality Science.

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What’s Causing Texas Earthquakes?

BY TRIBUNE NEWS SERVICE

Posted: JANUARY 14, 2015

By Anna Kuchment, Randy Lee Loftis, James Osborne and Avi Selk

Swarms of small quakes rippled up from unknown faults beneath the soil. They rustled Cleburne, Azle and Irving. Fifteen recent earthquakes around the old Texas Stadium in Irving site included the strongest yet in Dallas County, and their waves shook downtown office towers.

But after six years and more than 130 quakes, scientists are just beginning to map the fissures beneath Texas,. figure out why they woke up and predict what they might do next.

No one knows for sure whether the quakes are signs of a geological realignment, the aftermath of gas drilling or something else entirely.

What lies under Irving? That may be the biggest mystery facing the team of scientists investigating the latest earthquake swarm to hit North Texas.

“There are no known faults near the earthquake site,” said Beatrice Magnani, one of nine Southern Methodist University researchers studying the quakes.

That means about three dozen quakes that have rocked Irving since April are coming from a previously undiscovered fissure, deep underground.

“In this area of the world, researchers don’t know a lot about these faults, because the faults don’t come to the surface,” said Heather DeShon, a seismologist with the university.

Science can tell us only so much. Geological earthquake records are spotty before 1970, though they show no evidence of anything like the current spate in North Texas history.

And it may be impossible to predict how long the current rash of quakes will last. The Azle area got 27 quakes over three months. Cleburne was hit by two clusters, in 2009 and 2012.

But without knowing the size of the fault under Irving, scientists have no way to tell whether it might one day produce a devastating quake _ something thousands of times more powerful than the 3.6-magnitude earthquake that struck last week. (Scientists say the majority of earthquake swarms do not culminate in large, damaging events.)

To that end, the SMU team is trying to pinpoint each new quake and use the earthquakes’ locations to map the Irving fault’s size and depth.

The team is also trying to figure out which of several nearby fault systems Irving’s fissure belongs to. To the west, a system of small, deep faults has been linked to previous quakes in Azle, Cleburne and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. In the east, the large Balcones and Ouachita fault systems wind south to the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

The U.S. Geological Survey, which monitors and locates earthquakes across the world, places most of Irving’s quakes near the former Texas Stadium site. With sparse equipment near the quakes, the agency’s estimates can be off by miles. So last week, the SMU team added nearly two dozen seismometers _ quake detectors _ in and around Irving.

The team has also asked the Texas Railroad Commission and energy companies to help them gather information.

“Since the oil and gas industry are actively drilling into those rocks, they tend to know more than we do about subsurface fault structure,” DeShon said.

But the team has another purpose in investigating nearby gas wells and wastewater wells: to see whether underground pressure changes related to those wells are significant enough to cause quakes.

Almost as soon as earthquakes began rattling North Texas, fingers pointed at the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, boom that has overtaken the state this past decade.

The Texas Railroad Commission’s newly appointed seismologist, Craig Pearson, quickly dismissed any connection to oil and gas drilling. But the SMU team isn’t so sure.

“Obviously, we’re in the Fort Worth basin. We have to look into production activities and also wastewater injection activities,” DeShon said.

For decades, research has linked earthquake activity to underground injection wells, used by oil and gas companies to dispose of the large volumes of brackish water that are a byproduct of oil and gas drilling.

An injection well can reach more than 10,000 feet deep, pumping tens of millions of gallons of untreated water a year into underground rock formations and sometimes the faults that cause earthquakes.

That rush of liquid can stress the faults, setting off a chain reaction that can make buildings shake.

Since 2008, the SMU team has linked the Cleburne and airport quakes to injection-well activity.

But with Irving’s quakes, there’s some skepticism about whether injection wells are to blame.

Two injection wells lie under the airport, up to 10 miles from the center of the latest quakes. While one study in Oklahoma found that injection wells could cause quakes as far as 21 miles away, most studies link earthquakes to injection wells no more than six miles away.

“You can never say never, but it doesn’t seem like a smoking gun,” said Cliff Frohlich, a University of Texas at Austin seismologist and one of the foremost experts on Texas earthquakes.

But that is not the only line of inquiry directed at the oil and gas industry.

Recent research has linked earthquakes to fracking itself _ a process where water and chemicals are pumped underground at high pressure to create small fissures in rock that release oil and gas.

Sscientists at Miami University in Ohio published a paper tying natural gas wells there to a quake in a previously unknown underground fault that registered magnitude 3.0.

In North Texas, the closest wells are about two miles northwest of the epicenter of the Irving earthquakes. They are operated by Fort Worth-based Trinity East Energy.

There are nine more within about seven miles of the quakes, according to data from the Texas Railroad Commission.

According to Trinity East President Steve Fort, the two closest wells were last fracked about five years ago.

That would make them an unlikely cause, said Steve Horton, a seismologist at the University of Memphis.

But with many questions and little in the way of explanation, scientists are digging through those and other drilling records and studying fault maps looking for a connection.

They expect solving the riddle to take months _ and they’re only just getting started.

“It’s like cancer,” Frohlich said. “You can never really prove someone got lung cancer because they smoked. All you can do is look at the statistics and say you’re more likely to get cancer if you smoke.”

“In 1902, there was a big earthquake in Austin,” he said. “You know that wasn’t fracking. But if it happened at D/FW airport tomorrow, you’d wonder if it was.”

Besides drilling activity and natural shifts in the bedrock, at least one other theory intrigues some researchers: Could the long Texas drought have sucked enough water from the ground to destabilize the fault?

A gallon of water weighs a bit over 8 pounds _ whether it’s in a jug or in the ground.

Multiply that by thousands of square miles, years of scorching heat, and millions of thirsty residents. A drought can reduce the force of gravity over a fault zone _ potentially causing the Earth’s crust to bounce up and trigger earthquakes.

In theory, anyway. And local data appear to pour cold water on that theory.

Much of the state has been in a drought for years, yet only a few places have had earthquakes.

What’s more, drought or no drought, groundwater pumping in urban North Texas is minuscule _ seemingly not nearly enough to tip the balance toward earthquakes.

The water that comes out of public taps in Dallas-Fort Worth is from reservoirs and rivers, which aren’t believed to affect earthquakes.

Local monitoring of groundwater levels is spotty. A state database showed no readings from Irving wells for years. Another well about seven miles southeast of Irving has seen a general decrease in water levels since 2006, but nothing dramatic.

And studies show that people would need to use at least three times as much water from the aquifers below Irving before depletion would become a threat, let alone cause a gravity-induced earthquake.

One final clue: Two NASA satellites called GRACE circle the Earth, taking gravity readings. They show intense groundwater reduction in parts of North Texas in the last few years.

But the deficit is not uniform across the region.

“We have not seen anything in the GRACE records that would relate to the quakes reported in the Dallas-Fort Worth area,” Byron D. Tapley, director of the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas and the satellite’s chief investigator, said in an email.

Until scientists can explain the quakes, the people living with them can only guess.

(Dallas Morning News staff writer Daniel Lathrop contributed to this report.)

(c)2015 The Dallas Morning News

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Ezra Greenspan, English, on “Think”

KERA

Originally Posted: January 7, 2015

A Voice For Civil Rights

William Wells Brown was one of the most important American literary figures of the 19th Century, publishing everything from novels to plays to travelogues. This hour, we’ll get to know the man who left slavery behind and became a leading voice for civil rights with SMU professor Ezra Greenspan, author of William Wells Brown: An African American Life (W.W. Norton & Company). LISTEN

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Mustang Minute: Irving Earthquakes Media Briefing

YouTube Preview Image

SMU’s seismology team held a news briefing on Jan. 6, 2015, to explain what was known and what information is being sought about a series of recent earthquakes in Irving, Texas. The team announced Jan. 7 that it will deploy 22 more seismographs in the Irving area over the next few days to better understand the series of earthquakes that United States Geological Survey (USGS) data indicates are occurring on or near the site of the old Texas Stadium. The team is led by Brian Stump, the Albritton Chair of Geological Sciences at SMU, and Heather DeShon, Associate Professor of Geophysics. Learn more at http://www.smu.edu/News/2015/earthquakes-study-irving-06jan2015

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Women who are told men desire women with larger bodies are happier with their weight

Results of three independent studies suggest a woman’s body image is strongly linked to her perception of what she thinks men prefer

Originally Posted: Jan. 12, 2015

SMU Research Blog

Telling women that men desire larger women who aren’t model-thin made the women feel better about their own weight in a series of new studies.

Results of the three independent studies suggest a woman’s body image is strongly linked to her perception of what she thinks men prefer, said lead researcher and social psychologist Andrea Meltzer, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

How women perceive men’s preferences influenced each woman’s body image independent of her actual body size and weight.

“On average, heterosexual women believe that heterosexual men desire ultra-thin women,” said Meltzer, an assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at SMU. “Consequently, this study suggests that interventions that alter women’s perception regarding men’s desires for ideal female body sizes may be effective at improving women’s body image.”

The findings could have significant implications for women’s health and well-being, Meltzer said. READ MORE

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Heartland Daily Podcast with ISEM Board Chairman H. Leighton Steward

Heartland Daily Podcast

Originally Aired: Jan. 12, 2015

Geologists H. Leighton Steward is chairman of Plants Need CO2. He is a New York Times best-selling author and Chairman of the Board of The Institute for the Study of Earth and Man at SMU, most recently Steward worked with a team of former NASA scientists known as “The Right Climate Stuff.” The NASA team includes scientists with expertise in physics, chemistry, geology, climatology, engineering, biology, and other fields.

After carefully analyzing the evidence for global warming they concluded that there is no evidence of catastrophic global warming. They determined that current models are unvalidated and clearly deficient for climate forecasting, Earth’s sensitivity to CO2 is much less than commonly claimed, empirical evidence does not support a catastrophic warming scenario, calling CO2 a “pollutant” is scientifically embarrassing and we should not be spending huge sums to reduce CO2 in light of the above.

In fact, the team leader projects a maximum of one degree Celsius of warming by the end of this century based on a look back at empirical evidence. Listen to Podcast

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Human Rights in Poland 2014

Twenty members of the SMU community participated in a study tour of Holocaust sites in Poland Dec. 18-30, 2014.

Led by SMU Embrey Human Rights Program (EHRP) Director Rick Halperin, 16 SMU students traveled with two SMU staffers and Altshuler Distinguished Teaching Professor James K. Hopkins, who teaches European history in SMU’s Dedman College of Humanities and Sciences. The group visited cities and death camps throughout Poland, where, during World War II some 4,375,000 people were murdered during the Nazi, Germany, occupation.

Read entries from their blog.

Upcoming Human Rights Tours

Twelve students in SMU’s Student Leadership Initiative (SLI), sponsored by the Embrey Human Rights Program, will participate in a service-learning trip to Costa Rica Jan. 2-12, 2015. The SLI students will be led by Dr. Howard J. Recinos, Professor of Church and Society at SMU Perkins School of Theology, and Dr. Joci Caldwell Ryan, a lecturer in the women’s and gender studies program of SMU’s Dedman College of Humanities Caldwell-Ryan.

Another Holocaust-focused trip will have SMU students, faculty and staff visiting Budapest, Hungary, Jan. 7-13, 2015. Led by EHRP director Rick Halperin, 12 undergraduate and master’s level students will travel to the country along with Vicki Hill, SMU’s Assistant Dean for the University Curriculum. In an effort to address past, present and future identity issues stemming from what happened in Hungary before, during and after its Nazi-occupation in World War II, the group will meet with Holocaust survivors, witnesses and rescuers.

READ MORE

 

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SMU Scientists seek cause of Irving earthquakes

Dallas Morning News

By ANNA KUCHMENT, RANDY LEE LOFTIS, JAMES OSBORNE and AVI SELK
Staff Writers

Published: 10 January 2015 11:23 PM
Updated: 11 January 2015 07:25 PM

The earth under North Texas barely stirred for at least a century, until something down there snapped in 2008.

Swarms of small quakes rippled up from unknown faults beneath the soil. They rustled Cleburne, Azle and Irving. Last week’s 15 temblors around the old Texas Stadium site included the strongest yet in Dallas County, and their waves shook downtown office towers.

But after six years and more than 130 quakes, scientists are just beginning to map the fissures beneath us, figure out why they woke up, and predict what they might do next.

No one knows for sure whether the quakes are signs of a geological realignment, the aftermath of gas drilling or something else entirely.

What lies under Irving? That may be the biggest mystery facing the team of scientists investigating the latest earthquake swarm to hit North Texas.

“There are no known faults near the earthquake site,” said Beatrice Magnani, one of nine Southern Methodist University researchers studying the temblors.

That means about three dozen quakes that have rocked Irving since April are coming from a previously undiscovered fissure, deep underground.

“In this area of the world, researchers don’t know a lot about these faults, because the faults don’t come to the surface,” said Heather DeShon, a seismologist with the university.

Science can only tell us so much. Geological earthquake records are spotty before 1970, though they show no evidence of anything like the current spate in North Texas history.

And it may be impossible to predict how long the current rash of quakes will last. The Azle area got 27 quakes over three months. Cleburne was hit by two clusters, in 2009 and 2012.

But without knowing the size of the fault under Irving, scientists have no way to tell whether it might one day produce a devastating quake — something thousands of times more powerful than the 3.6-magnitude temblor that struck this week. (Scientists say the majority of earthquake swarms do not culminate in large, damaging events.)

To that end, the SMU team is trying to pinpoint each new quake and use the earthquakes’ locations to map the Irving fault’s size and depth.

The team is also trying to figure out which of several nearby fault systems Irving’s fissure belongs to. To the west, a system of small, deep faults has been linked to previous quakes in Azle, Cleburne and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. In the east, the large Balcones and Ouachita fault systems wind south to the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

The U.S. Geological Survey, which locates earthquakes across the world, places most of Irving’s temblors near the former Texas Stadium site. With sparse equipment near the quakes, the agency’s estimates can be off by miles. So last week, the SMU team added nearly two dozen seismometers — quake detectors — in and around Irving.

The team has also asked the Texas Railroad Commission and energy companies to help them gather information.

“Since the oil and gas industry are actively drilling into those rocks, they tend to know more than we do about subsurface fault structure,” said DeShon.

But the team has another purpose in investigating nearby gas wells and wastewater wells: To see whether underground pressure changes related to those wells are significant enough to cause quakes. READ MORE

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Former Dedman College Scholar, Kirsten Johansson On Getting Into Law School

OneDublin.org

By: Kirsten Johansson

Ever since high school, I knew I wanted to be a lawyer. For a while I didn’t know what type of law I wanted to practice, although I was drawn to criminal law from the crime TV shows I loved. Around my junior year in Dublin High School, I become very interested in environmental law and I have continued down this path ever since. My law school experience has consisted of two parts – getting in and my experience as an actual law student.

kirsten-johansson-smu-class-of-2014-graduation

Getting In
The first part of making my dreams of going to law school a reality sounded simply enough; I had to get in. When I was choosing a college, I chose the one that gave me the most opportunities for extracurricular activities and an excellent pre-law program. For me, this college was Southern Methodist University in Dallas. I learned later on that having a “pre-law” program is far from necessary for law school, but having this program made me feel more comfortable.

When choosing a major, most pre-law students decide to pursue a political science degree. If you love political science, I think this is a good option, but overall I think having a broader range of knowledge is useful when applying. I was interested in the environment, and so I double majored in Environmental Studies and Public Policy. This exposed me to both the politics and the science behind environmental law, which I have found very useful. My biggest recommendation to anyone, but especially those planning to go to graduate school, is to take classes you like. Keeping your GPA up is one of the single most important determining factors for getting into law school, and I found I always did better in classes I enjoyed.

The other major component for getting into law school is the LSAT. In some ways, the LSAT is like the SAT in that it is a standardized test that incorporates several sections to give you one score. However, the LSAT is unlike any test you have ever taken before. The three parts include Analytical Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, Reading Comprehension as well as a writing section. In order to prepare, I took an online prep class. Many of my peers took a class that was taught on campus, but I liked the flexibility of an online class. I also took a logic course at SMU to help me prepare. READ MORE

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